जैविक नियन्त्रणको परिभाषा

कृषि र वातावरणीय शत्रुजीवहरुको व्यवस्थापनका लागि अझ वढी दिगो विधी भनेको जैविक विधीबाट नियन्त्रण (वा जैविक नियन्त्रण) को प्रयोग नै हो । यहाँ हामी शत्रुजीव व्यवस्थापनका लागि जैविक नियन्त्रण तथा जैविक नियन्त्र०का विभिन्न प्रकारका तरिकाहरु संक्षेपमा व्याख्या गर्छौं ।

What is biocontrol?

The International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association (IBMA), the voice of the Biocontrol technologies industry,  define biocontrol (or biological control) as:

“pest and disease control for plant protection based on living organisms and naturally-sourced compounds.”

There are several types of biocontrol. These are:

  • Conservation biological control
  • Augmentative biological control
  • Classical biological control

For an illustration of what is meant by biological control watch this short video from the EU BIOCOMES project:

What is natural biological control?

Natural biological control is an ecosystem service whereby pests are regulated by natural enemies without any human intervention. This could be the situation in unmanaged natural systems such as tropical forests, as compared to agricultural systems.

What is conservation biological control?

Conservation biological control seeks to actively protect and enhance the abundance or activity of naturally occurring natural enemies (and microbes) & pollinators, by providing:

  • Alternative hosts
  • Food (energy) sources
  • Shelter and refuge habitat
  • Appropriate microclimates
  • This type of approach also aims to avoid negative effects on beneficials, most of all by pesticides.

An example is the installation of border crops (including hedgerows) in agricultural areas, containing pollen producing plants, nectar producing plants, plants which harbour alternative hosts for natural enemies (banker plants) these provide shelter, nectar, pollen and alternative hosts for natural enemies and pollinators.

What is augmentative biological control?

Augmentive biological control is the periodical release of large numbers of natural enemies (or microbes) in a specific area. This can be either inoculative or inundative.

A beneficial organism is able to perform well when the pest is seasonally present in damaging numbers, even though it is unable to persist in sizeable numbers the year round. The introduction of relatively small numbers of such species that are present in the ecosystem albeit at insufficient numbers has been termed inoculative periodic colonization.

In contrast, in inundative releases, large releases are made to effect short term control of a pest. Inundative releases simulate pesticide treatments, and the agent simply reduces, rather than regulates, the pest population. Examples are the mass production and release of Trichogramma spp against corn borer species. However, sometimes differences become less clear, as for instance Trichogramma will reproduce in the fields after release thus resembling to some degree inoculative releases. Also in sugarcane, cotton and vegetables, small, inoculative releases of Trichogramma early in the season have proved just as effective in controlling moth pests as regular, massive releases throughout the season.

What is classical biological control?

Classical biocontrol involves the introduction of a host specific natural enemy (or microbe) from the centre of origin or diversity of a pest organism to manage the pest. This is approach is usually used against invasive alien species which have moved from their centre of origin or diversity to a new area without their coevolved natural enemies.

The classical biocontrol approach has been successfully used for many weed and insect pests including the use of the rust, Maravalia cryptostegiae, to manage rubber-vine weed, Cryptostegia grandiflora in Australia and  the control of the Pink Hibiscus mealybug  Maconellicoccus hirsutus in the Caribbean, using the predatory beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and the hymenoptern endoparasitoids Anagyrus kamali and Gyranusoides indica.

More information can be found in जैविक नियन्त्रणका एजेन्टहरुका प्रकारहरु

Other Resources


Using natural pest control on your coffee crops – what are the benefits and how do you do it? Our guide takes you through the steps from start to finish to help you start using safer pest control.

शत्रुजीव व्यवस्थापन

कुनै उत्पादनको प्रभावकारिता सुनिश्चिततामा शत्रुजीव व्यवस्थापनका लागि जैविक विधीहरुमा आधारित उत्पादनको भण्डारण, परिचालन, प्रयोगको तरिका र समय अत्यन्तै महत्वपूर्ण हुन सक्छन । यहाँ तपाईंले विभिन्न श्रोतहरु भेट्टाउनुहुनेछ जसले तपाईंलाई तपाईंको उत्पादन प्रणालीमा यी एजेन्टहरुको प्रभाव बढाउने कार्य गर्दछन ।

शत्रुजीव पहिचान

तपाईंको समस्या शत्रुजीवको पहिचानको बारेमा जानकारी हुनु सो शत्रुजीव व्यवस्थापनको प्रभावकारी माध्यमहरुको श्रोत व्यवस्थापनका लागि अति महत्वपूर्ण हुन्छ । यहाँ हामी शत्रुजीव पहिचानमा सहयोग, र तपाईंको निदान क्षमताको अन्तर्निहित विकासका लागि निर्देशन र उपकरणहरु प्रदान गर्छौं ।

जैविक नियन्त्रणका एजेन्टहरुका प्रकारहरु

जैविक नियन्त्रण एजेन्टहरुको दायरा र तिनीहरुबाट लक्षित शत्रुजीवहरुसँग अन्तर्क्रिया गर्ने तरिकाको राम्रो वुझाइले तपाईंको उत्पादन प्रणालीको लागि उपयुक्त एजेन्ट छनौटमा सहयोग गर्न सक्छ, यतिमात्र नभै तिनीहरु कसरी अझ प्रभावकारी रुपमा प्रयोग गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने बारेमा भित्री ज्ञान पनि प्रदान गर्दछ । यहाँ हामी यस्ता नयाँ खालका विधीहरुमा अझ वढी सूचना प्रदान गर्नका लागि अतिरिक्त सुचना तथा श्रोतहरु प्रदान गर्दछौं ।